Dr. William F. Blakely


Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute

Scientific Research Department
Biological Dosimetry Research
Biological Dosimetry Program Advisor
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
School of Medicine
Preventive Medicine/Biometrics
Environmental and Occupational Health
Adjunct Assistant Professor Appointed: 2000

Mailing Address Contact Information
Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Biological Dosimetry Research Group 8901 Wisconsin Avenue Bethesda, Maryland 20889-5603 United States Phone: (301) 295-0484 Fax: (301) 295-1863 blakely@afrri.usuhs.mil


Ph.D., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Radiation Biology, 1980 .
M.S., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Physiology, 1976.
B.A., San Diego State University, Zoology (Major)/Chemistry (Minor), 1974.

Expertise and Research Interests

DNA damage and repair
Molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity and protection
Cell cycle effects
Biology of free radicals and redox/oxidation reactions

Other Expertise

U.S.A. Representative to ISO TC85/SC2 (Radiation Protection) Working Group 18 (Performance criteria for Service Laboratories performing Biological Dosimetry by Cytogenetics)

Member, United States Military Cancer Institute

Project Manager, Radiation Casualty Management software application (Biodosimetry Assessment Tool and First-responder Radiological Assessment Triage)

Future Research

http://myprofile.cos.com/wfblakely 2/2/2011 Molecular biodosimetry

Industrial Relevance

Biodosimetry service


(Reading, Writing, Speaking)

American Sign Language: (None, None, Functional)


Health Physics Society
Radiation Research Society

Honors and Awards

2009, Co-editor and Program Committee Member, AFRRI, Partial-body Radiation Diagnostic Biomarkers and Medical Management of Radiation Injury Workshop - Abstracts, SP09-1
2007, Guest Co-editor and Program Committee Member, Biodose 2006, Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on EPR Dosimetry and Applications and the 2nd International Conference on Biodosimetry, Bethesda, MD July 10-13, 2006. Radiation Measurements 42(6-7)
2005, Co-editor and Program Chair, NATO, Proceedings of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Human Factors and Medicine Panel Research Task Group -033 Meeting, "Radiation Bioeffects and Countermeasures", Bethesda, MD USA June 21-23, 2006 2005, Guest Co-editor and Program Chair, National Countil of Radiation Protection and Measurements, National Counicl of Radiation Protection and Measuements, Proceedings of the Fortieth Annual Meeting of the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements, Advances in Consequence Management for Radiological Terrorism Events, Health Physics 89(5) 2003-2013, Council Member, National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements 2002, Co-Editor and Program Co-Chair, Proceedings of the International Conference on Low-Level Radiation Injury and Medical Countermeasures, Proceedings of the International Conference on Low-Level Radiation Injury and Medical Countermeasures 2000-2001, President Oxygen Club of Greater Washington, D.C.
1998, Co-Editor, Proceedings: Triage of Irradiated Personnel, Proceedings: Triage of Irradiated Personnel 1995-2000, Associate Editor, Radiation Research, Radiation Research Journal 1991-1992, Special Achievement Award, AFRRI 1989-1990, Sustained Superior Performance Award, AFRRI 1987-1988, Special Achievement Award, AFRRI 1983-1984, National Research Council Associateship Award, National Research Council, AFRRI 1983-1983, Young Investigator Travel Award, Radiation Research 1981-1981, Junior Investigator Travel Award, Chemical Modifiers Conference 1980-1983, NIH-National Research Service Award, NIH, University of California, San Diego 1976-1980, U.S. Public Health Service Predoctoral Traineeship Fellowship, U.S. Public Health Service, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1974-1976, Graduate Teaching Assistantship, Physiology and Biophysics Dept., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1974-1974, Zoology Scholarship (unable to accept), Zoology Department, San Diego State University

Previous Positions

1984-1998, Research Scientist, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Applied Cellular Radiobiology
1983-1984, National Research Council Research Associate, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Experimental Hematology
1980-1983, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, University of California, San Diego, Cancer Center, Radiobiology
1975-1980, Predoctoral Research Associate, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Physiology and Biophysics
1975-1975, Research Assistant, Argonne National Laboratory, Biological and Medical Research


Biomarker panels for assessing radiation injury and exposure, Patent Number: 60/812596, 2006, Institution, United States of America. A simple and rapid method to induce premature chromosome condensation in human resting peripheral blood lymphocytes, to study structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations involving specific chromosomes, Patent Number: Provisional patent, 2001, Institution-owned, United States of America.

Mouse genomic DNA hybridization probe an immunoenzymatic color pigment detection of mouse bone marrow micronucleus for regulatory required genetic toxicity assay (mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay), Patent Number: Provisional patent filed, 2000, Institution-owned, United States of America.


  • Sandgren DJ, Salter CA, Levine IH, Ross JA, Lillis-Hearne PK, Blakely WF (Nov 2010) Biodosimetry Assessment Tool (BAT) software-dose prediction algorithms., Health physics, 99 Suppl 5, S171-83

  • • Blakely WF, Madrid JP, Sandgren DJ (Nov 2010) Biodosimetry medical recording-use of the Biodosimetry Assessment Tool., Health physics, 99 Suppl 5, S184-91

  • Blakely WF, Ossetrova NI, Whitnall MH, Sandgren DJ, Krivokrysenko VI, Shakhov A, Feinstein E (2010) Multiple parameter radiation injury assessment using a nonhuman primate radiation model--biodosimetry applications., Health Physics, 98 (2), 153-9

  • Ossetrova NI, Sandgren DJ, Gallego S, Blakely WF (2010) Combined approach of hematological biomarkers and plasma protein SAA for improvement of radiation dose assessment in triage biodosimetry applications., Health Physics, 98 (2), 204-8

  • Prasanna PG, Blakely WF, Bertho JM, Chute JP, Cohen EP, Goans RE, Grace MB, Lillis-Hearne PK, Lloyd DC, Lutgens LC, Meineke V, Ossetrova NI, Romanyukha A, Saba JD, Weisdorf DJ, Wojcik A, Yukihara EG, Pellmar TC (Feb 2010) Synopsis of partial-body radiation diagnostic biomarkers and medical management of radiation injury workshop., Radiation research, 173 (2), 245-53

  • Redon CE, Nakamura AJ, Gouliaeva K, Rahman A, Blakely WF, Bonner WM (2010) The use of gamma-H2AX as a biodosimeter for total-body radiation exposure in non-human primates., PloS one, 5 (11), e15544

  • Salter CA, Sandgren DJ, Levine IH, Blakely WF (2010) New biodosimetry tools to support mental health in nuclear/radiological accidents or terrorism, The 71F Advantage: Applying Army Research Psychology for Health and Performance Gains, Washington D.C., Natonal Defense University Press, 357-370 pages (bookchapter)

  • Ossetrova NI, Blakely WF (Oct 2009) Multiple blood-proteins approach for early-response exposure assessment using an in vivo murine radiation model., International journal of radiation biology, 85 (10), 837-50

  • Waller E, Millage K, Blakely WF, Ross JA, Mercier JR, Sandgren DJ, Levine IH, Dickerson WE, Nemhauser JB, Nasstrom JS, Sugiyama G, Homann S, Buddemeier BR, Curling CA, Disraelly DS (Aug 2009) Overview of hazard assessment and emergency planning software of use to RN first responders., Health physics, 97 (2), 145-56

  • Blakely WF, Carr Z, Chu MC, Dayal-Drager R, Fujimoto K, Hopmeir M, Kulka U, Lillis-Hearne P, Livingston GK, Lloyd DC, Maznyk N, Perez Mdel R, Romm H, Takashima Y, Voisin P, Wilkins RC, Yoshida MA (Jan 2009) WHO 1st Consultation on the Development of a Global Biodosimetry Laboratories Network for Radiation Emergencies (BioDoseNet)., Radiation research, 171 (1), 127-39

  • Straume T, Amundson SA, Blakely WF, Burns FJ, Chen A, Dainiak N, Franklin S, Leary JA, Loftus DJ, Morgan WF, Pellmar TC, Stolc V, Turteltaub KW, Vaughan AT, Vijayakumar S, Wyrobek AJ (Sep 2008) NASA Radiation Biomarker Workshop, September 27-28, 2007., Radiation research, 170 (3), 393-405

  • Blakely WF (2008) Early Biodosimetry Response: Recommendations for Mass Casualty Radiation Accidents and Terrorism, International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, IRPA, http://www.irpa12.org.ar, IRPA

  • Martin PR, Berdychevski RE, Subramanian U, Blakely WF, Prasanna PG (Jul 2007) Sample Tracking in an Automated Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory for Radiation Mass Casualties., Radiation Measurements, 42 (6-7), 1119-1124

  • Alexander GA, Swartz HM, Amundson SA, Blakely WF, Buddemeier B, Gallez B, Dainiak N, Goans RE, Hayes RB, Lowry PC, Noska MA, Okunieff P, Salner AL, Schauer DA, Trompier F, Turteltaub KW, Voisin P, Wiley Jr. AL, Wilkins R (2007) BiodosEPR-2006 Meeting: Acute dosimetry consensus committee recommendations on biodosimetry applications in events involving uses of radiation by terrorists and radiation accidents, Radiation Measurements, 42 (67), 972-977

  • Blakely WF, Ossetrova NI, Manglapus GL, Salter CA, Levine IH, Jackson WE, Grace MB, Prasanna PGS, Sandgren DJ, Ledney GD (2007) Amylase and blood cell-count hematological radiation-injury biomarkers in a rhesus monkey radiation model - use of multiparameter and intergrated biological dosimetry, Radiation Measurements, 42 (6-7), 1164-1170

  • Grace MB, Blakely WF (2007) Transcription of five p53- and Stat-3-inducible genes after ionizing radiation, Radiation Measurements, 42 (6-7), 1147-1151

  • Grace MB, Blakely WF, Landauer MB (2007) Genistein-induced alterations of radiation-responsive gene expression, Radiation Measurements, 42 (6-7), 1152-1157

  • Ossetrova NI, Farese AM, MacVittie TJ, Manglapus GL, Blakely WF (2007) The use of discriminant analysis for evaluation of early-response multiple biomarkers of radiation exposure using non-human primate 6-Gy whole-body radiation model, Radiation Measurements, 42 (6-7), 1158-1163

  • Jarrett DG, Blakely WF, Braley GS, Brook I, Cummings C, Dickerson WE, Francis G, Kirtland SK, Liotta PL, Miller RW, Prasanna PGS, Sedlak RG, Tsu H, Yu CE (2006) Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism, Pediatric Terrorism and Disaster Preparedness: A Resource for Pediatricians, Rockville, MD, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (bookchapter)

  • Grace MB, Muderhwa JM, Salter CA, Blakely WF (Sep 2006) Use of a centrifuge-based automated blood cell counter for radiation dose assessment., Military medicine, 171 (9), 908-12

  • Blakely WF, Salter CA, Prasanna PG (Nov 2005) Early-response biological dosimetry-recommended countermeasure enhancements for mass-casualty radiological incidents and terrorism, Health Physics, 89 (5), 494-504

  • Pellmar TC, Rockwell S, Radiological/Nuclear Threat Countermeasures Working Group (Jan 2005) Priority list of research areas for radiological nuclear threat countermeasures, 163 (1), 11523

  • Prasanna PG, Blakely WF (2005) Premature chromosome condensation in human resting peripheral blood lymphocytes for chromosome aberration analysis using specific whole-chromosome DNA hybridization probes, 291, 49-57

  • Waselenko JK, MacVittie TJ, Blakely WF, Pesik N, Wiley AL, Dickerson WE, Tsu H, Confer DL, Coleman CN, Seed T, Lowry P, Armitage JO, Dainiak N, Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group (Jun 2004) Medical management of the acute radiation syndrome: recommendations of the Strategic National Stockpile Radiation Working Group, 140 (12), 103751

http://myprofile.cos.com/wfblakel y 2/2/2011

http://myprofile.cos.com/wfblakely 2/2/2011

• Salter CA, Levine IH, Jackson WE, Prasanna PGS, Salomon K, Blakely WF (2004) Biodosimetry tools supporting the recording of medical information during radiation casualty incidents, Public Protection from Nuclear, Chemical, and Biological Terrorism, Health Physics Society, 481-488 pages (bookchapter)

  • Grace MB, McLeland CB, Gagliardi SJ, Smith JM, Jackson WE 3rd, Blakely WF, Development and assessment of a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay for simultaneous measurement of four amplicons, Clinical Chemistry, 49(9), 1467-75, September 2003

  • Coleman CN, Blakely WF, Fike JR, MacVittie TJ, Metting NF, Mitchell JB, Moulder JE, Preston RJ, Seed TM, Stone HB, Tofilon PJ, Wong RS, Molecular and cellular biology of moderate-dose (1-10 Gy) radiation and potential mechanisms of radiation protection: report of a workshop at Bethesda, Maryland, December 17-18, 2001, Radiation Research, 159(6), 812-34, June 2003

  • Blakely WF, Miller AC, Grace MB, McLeland CB, Luo L, Muderhwa JM, Miner VL, Prasanna PG, Radiation biodosimetry: applications for spaceflight, Advances in Space Research, 31(6), 1487-93, March 2003

  • Pogozelski WK, Hamel CJC, Woeller CF, Jackson WE, Zullo SJ, Fischel-Ghodsian N, Blakely WF, Quantification of total mitochondrial DNA and the 4977-bp common deletion in Pearson's syndrome lymphoblasts using a fluorogenic 5'nuclease (TaqMan) real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and plasm, Mitochondriion, 2, 415-427, 2003

  • Voisin P, Barquinero F, Blakely B, Lindholm C, Lloyd D, Luccioni C, Miller S, Palitti F, Prasanna PG, Stephan G, Thierens H, Turai I, Wilkinson D, Wojcik A, Towards a

http://myprofile.cos.com/wfblakel y 2/2/2011 standardization of biological dosimetry by cytogenetics, Cellular and Molecular Biology (noisy

le-grand, France), 48(5), 501-4, July 2002

  • • Blakely WF, Multiple parameter biodosimetry of exposed workers from the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura, 22(1), 5-6, March 2002

  • Blakely WF, Miller AC, Luo L, Lukas J, Hornby ZD, Hamel CJC, Nelson JT, Escalada ND, Nucleic Acid Molecular Biomarkers for Diagnostic Biodosimetry Applications: Use of Fluorogenic 5'-Nuclease Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay, Military Medicine, 167(Suppl. 1), 16-19, February 2002

  • Prasanna PGS, Hamel CJC, Escalada ND, Duffy KL, Blakely WF, Biological Dosimetry Using Human Interphase Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes, Military Medicine, 167(Suppl. 1), 10-12, February 2002

  • Blakely WF, Brooks AL, Lofts RS, van der Schans GP, Voisin P, Overview of low-level radiation exposure assessment: biodosimetry, Military Medicine, 167(Suppl 1), 20-4, February 2002

  • Miller AC, Luo L, Chin WK, Director-Myska AE, Prasanna PG, Blakely WF, Proto-oncogene expression: a predictive assay for radiation biodosimetry applications, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 99(1-4), 295-302, 2002

  • Grace, M.B., McLeland, C.B., Blakely, W.F., Real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay of GADD45 gene expression changes as a biomarker for radiation biodosimetry, IJRB, 78(11), 1011 - 1021, 2002

  • Sine RC, Levine IH, Jackson WE, Hawley AL, Prasanna PGS, Grace MB, Goans RE, Greenhill RG, Blakely WF, Biodosimetry Assessment Tool: A Post-Exposure Software Application for Management of Radiation Accidents, Military Medicine, 166(Suppl. 2), 85-87, December 2001

  • Director-Myska AE, Pogozelski WK, Lofts RS, Prasanna PG, Hamel CJ, Blakely WF, Quantitative plasmid mixture analysis using the fluorogenic 5'-nuclease polymerase chain reaction assay, Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 37(2), 147-54, 2001

  • Blakely, W.F., Prasanna, P.G.S., Grace, M.B., Miller, A.C., Radiation Exposure Assessment Using Cytological and Molecular Biomarkers, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 97(1), 17-23, 2001

  • Kolanko CJ, Pyle MD, Nath J, Prasanna PG, Loats H, Blakely WF, In situ detection of a PCR-synthesized human pancentromeric DNA hybridization probe by color pigment immunostaining: application for dicentric assay automation, Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 75(2), 91-8, March 2000

  • Prasanna PG, Escalada ND, Blakely WF, Induction of premature chromosome condensation by a phosphatase inhibitor and a protein kinase in unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes: a simple and rapid technique to study chromosome aber, Mutation Research, 466(2), 131-41, March 2000

  • Kolanko CJ, Pyle MD, Loats H, Parton J, Blakely WF, Nath J, Fast-in situ hybridization and immunoenzymatic color pigment detection of mouse bone marrow micronucleus, Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 74(3), 111-5, May 1999

  • Pogozelski WK, Xapsos MA, Blakely WF, Quantitative assessment of the contribution of clustered damage to DNA double-strand breaks induced by 60Co gamma rays and fission neutrons, Radiation Research, 151(4), 442-8, April 1999

  • Miller AC, Blakely WF, Livengood D, Whittaker T, Xu J, Ejnik JW, Hamilton MM, Parlette E, John TS, Gerstenberg HM, Hsu H, Transformation of human osteoblast cells to the tumorigenic phenotype by depleted uranium-uranyl chloride, Environmental Health Perspectives, 106(8), 465-71, August 1998

  • Prasanna PG, Kolanko CJ, Gerstenberg HM, Blakely WF, Premature chromosome condensation assay for biodosimetry: studies with fission-neutrons, Health Physics, 72(4), 594-600, April 1997

  • Stankus AA, Xapsos MA, Kolanko CJ, Gerstenberg HM, Blakely WF, Energy deposition events produced by fission neutrons in aqueous solutions of plasmid DNA, International Journal of Radiation Biology, 68(1), 1-9, July 1995

  • Blakely WF, Prasanna PG, Kolanko CJ, Pyle MD, Mosbrook DM, Loats AS, Rippeon TL, Loats H, Application of the premature chromosome condensation assay in simulated partial-body radiation exposures: evaluation of the use of an automated metaphase-finder, Stem Cells, 13 Suppl 1, 223-30, May 1995

  • Abend M, Rhein A, Gilbertz KP, Blakely WF, Van Beuningen D, Correlation of micronucleus and apoptosis assays with reproductive cell death, International Journal of Radiation Biology, 67 (3), 315-26, March 1995

  • • Abend M, Blakely WF, van Beuningen D, Simplified and optimized kinetochore detection: cytogenetic marker for late-G2 cells, Mutation Research, 334(1), 39-47, February 1995

  • Redpath JL, Antoniono RJ, Sun C, Gerstenberg HM, Blakely WF, Late mitosis/early G1 phase and mid-G1 phase are not hypersensitive cell cycle phases for neoplastic transformation of HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells induced by fission-spectrum neutrons, Radiation Research, 141(1), 37-43, January 1995

  • Balcer-Kubiczek EK, Harrison GH, Hill CK, Blakely WF, Effects of WR-1065 and WR-151326 on survival and neoplastic transformation in C3H/10T1/2 cells exposed to TRIGA or JANUS fission neutrons, International Journal of Radiation Biology, 63(1), 37-46, January 1993

  • Iliakis GE, Pantelias GE, Okayasu R, Blakely WF, Induction by H2O2 of DNA and interphase chromosome damage in plateau-phase Chinese hamster ovary cells, Radiation Research, 131(2), 192-203, August 1992

  • Miller AC, Blakely WF, Inhibition of glutathione reductase activity by a carbamoylating nitrosourea: effect on cellular radiosensitivity, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 12(1), 53-62, 1992

  • Redpath JL, Sun C, Blakely WF, Effect of fission-neutron dose rate on the induction of a tumor-associated antigen in human cell hybrids (HeLa X skin fibroblasts), Radiation Research, 128(1 Suppl), S71-4, October 1991

  • Fuciarelli AF, Wegher BJ, Blakely WF, Dizdaroglu M, Yields of radiation-induced base products in DNA: effects of DNA conformation and gassing conditions, International Journal of Radiation Biology, 58(3), 397-415, September 1990

  • Held KD, Mirro J, Melder DC, Blakely WF, Oleinick NL, Chiu SM, Radiation-induced binding of DNA from irradiated mammalian cells to hydroxyapatite columns, Radiation Research, 123 (3), 268-74, September 1990

  • • Blakely WF, Fuciarelli AF, Wegher BJ, Dizdaroglu M, Hydrogen peroxide-induced base damage in deoxyribonucleic acid, Radiation Research, 121(3), 338-43, March 1990

  • Fuciarelli AF, Wegher BJ, Gajewski E, Dizdaroglu M, Blakely WF, Quantitative measurement of radiation-induced base products in DNA using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Radiation Research, 119(2), 219-31, August 1989

  • • Blakely E, Chang P, Lommel L, Bjornstad K, Dixon M, Tobias C, Kumar K, Blakely WF, Cell-cycle radiation response: role of intracellular factors, 9(10), 177-86, 1989

  • Dirksen ML, Blakely WF, Holwitt E, Dizdaroglu M, Effect of DNA conformation on the hydroxyl radical-induced formation of 8,5'-cyclopurine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside residues in DNA, International Journal of Radiation Biology, 54(2), 195-204, August 1988

  • Walden TL, Buchner J, Pizzitola V, Blakely WF, Thermospray liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of thiol radioprotective agents: characteristic spectra, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 39(1-3), 219-21, 1988

  • Blakely EA, Roots RJ, Chang PY, Lommel L, Craise LM, Goodwin EH, Yee E, Dodgen DP, Blakely WF, Cell-cycle dependence of X-ray oxygen effect: role of endogenous glutathione, Nci

http://myprofile.cos.com/wfblakel y 2/2/2011

http://myprofile.cos.com/wfblakely 2/2/2011 Monographs, 217-23, 1988

  • Patchen ML, D'Alesandro MM, Brook I, Blakely WF, MacVittie TJ, Glucan: mechanisms involved in its 'radioprotective' effect, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 42(2), 95-105, August 1987

  • Dizdaroglu M, Holwitt E, Hagan MP, Blakely WF, Formation of cytosine glycol and 5,6dihydroxycytosine in deoxyribonucleic acid on treatment with osmium tetroxide, Biochemical Journal, 235(2), 531-6, 1986

  • Ward JF, Blakely WF, Joner EI, Mammalian cells are not killed by DNA single-strand breaks caused by hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide, Radiation Research, 103(3), 383-92, September 1985

  • • Ward JF, Joner EI, Blakely WF, Effects of inhibitors of DNA strand break repair on HeLa cell radiosensitivity, Cancer Research, 44(1), 59-63, January 1984

  • • Blakely WF, Ward JF, Joner EI, A quantitative assay of deoxyribonucleic acid strand breaks and their repair in mammalian cells, Analytical Biochemistry, 124(1), 125-33, 1982

  • Prasanna PGS, Blakely WF, Bertho J-M, Chute JP, Cohen EP, Goans RE, Grace MB, Lillis-Hearne PK, Lloyd DC, Lutgens LCH, Meineke V, Ossetrova NI, Romanyukha A, Saba JD, Weisdorf DJ, Wojcik A, Yukihara EG, Pellmar TC, Synopsis of Partial-Body Radiation Diagnostic Biomarkers and Medical Management of Radiation Injury Workshop, Radiation research, In Press