Gene Carbaugh is a Certified Health Physicist and staff scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory where he manages the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program. He oversees the bioassay monitoring program design and dose assessment processes, and Hanford's 24/7/365 on-call dosimetry assistance response. With over 25 years experience in internal dosimetry, he has dealt extensively with people having actual or potential intakes of radioactivity, and is the primary liaison between the Hanford dosimetry and occupational medicine staffs. In the latter role he has been involved with most of the DTPA administrations at Hanford since 1983. He was a consultant and member of the scientific committees authoring NCRP Reports 161 and 166 involving management of persons contaminated with radionuclides and population screening for such people, and serves on working groups for ANSI/HPS standards for tritium and plutonium internal dosimetry. He also serves on the DOELAP Radiobioassay Oversight Board. He has served as president and treasurer (2 terms) of the Columbia Chapter HPS. Outside of health physics, he is committed to church and Boy Scout leadership roles, and is an avid folk dancer and community theater participant.

Staff Scientist and Program Manager
Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program
Radiation & Health Technology
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory


Education, Certifications, and Recognitions

Fellow: Health Physics Society, 2010.
CHP: Certified by American Board of Health Physics in Comprehensive Health Physics (continuous since 1984).
Award: Health Physicist of the Year, Recipient of the 1990 Award from the Columbia Chapter, Health Physics Society.
B.S. Nuclear Engineering Technology, Oregon State University, 1974.
Graduate level courses in nuclear engineering and radiological sciences, Numerous technical and management continuing education courses.

Summary of Experience

Mr. Carbaugh is a Certified Health Physicist currently specializing in applied internal dosimetry. His 35 years of experience spans radiological and environmental safety, dosimetry records, training, radiation measurements and their interpretation, fabrication of NIST-traceable phantoms, waste management, effluent monitoring, program planning, quality assurance, and nuclear reactor maintenance and construction. He has published in several of these areas and is highly effective in both oral and written communications. Specifics of his experience are as follows:

  • Internal Dosimetry: Mr. Carbaugh is one of the most senior internal dosimetrists in the Department of Energy complex. He is the program manager of the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, to which he has provided support since 1983. His responsibilities include line management of internal dosimetry staff, oversight of the dose assessment process, authoring technical basis documentation and procedures, interpreting low-level measurements of radioactivity, evaluating intakes, developing bioassay monitoring programs, recommending evaluation techniques, training and mentoring dosimetrists, and coordinating the 24-hour on-call dosimetry assistance response for Hanford incidents. He has dealt extensively with workers exposed or potentially exposed to intakes of radioactivity and is the primary liaison between the Hanford dosimetry and occupational medicine staffs. He serves on ANSI standard committees for tritium and plutonium internal dosimetry, and scientific committees for NCRP Reports 161 and 166. His teaching skills have been applied as a faculty member of the 1994 Health Physics Society Summer School, and as an instructor for professional enrichment and continuing education health physics classes. He is an assessor for the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) for Radiobioassay and a member of the DOELAP Radiobioassay Oversight Board. He has also served on several internal dosimetry special working groups for DOE.
  • Dosimetry Records: Mr. Carbaugh was Acting Manager of the Hanford Radiation Records Program for 2005, responsible for maintaining the personal dosimetry records of all Hanford employees, including hard-copy and electronic formats, and assuring that reports to individuals, employers, and the Department of Energy were issued in accordance with federal requirements.
  • General Health Physics: Mr. Carbaugh is certified in the comprehensive practice of health physics by the American Board of Health Physics. He has performed in-depth technical appraisals of internal dosimetry, health physics and emergency preparedness programs at NRC and DOE facilities, and has observer/controller experience for emergency exercises. He administered the Hanford 200 Area groundwater monitoring program, developed company effluent and environmental monitoring standards, and participated in numerous technical design and safety reviews.
  • Training: A distinctive voice and delivery style, combined with strong people-skills, make Mr. Carbaugh an excellent communicator. As part of his internal dosimetry work he has developed videotape and lecture training aids, was a member of the Health Physics Society 1994 Summer School on Internal Dosimetry, and has given PEP classes at HPS Annual Meetings. He co-developed and taught a "health physics for the non-health physicist" continuing education course through Washington State University, is an instructor in professional certification review classes, and assisted with radiation orientation classes for U.S. Customs agents.
  • Certified Phantom Fabrication: He has managed the fabrication of NIST-traceable calibration phantoms for in vivo measurements. His work included hands-on phantom fabrication as well as calculating and certifying the quantity of low-level radioactivity in the phantoms.
  • Nuclear Waste Management: Mr. Carbaugh worked in nuclear waste management for three years with a DOE chemical processing and waste management contractor. As an Advanced Engineer and Team Leader, he provided technical direction and supervision for seven engineers in low-level waste management. He developed the technical approach for the Rockwell Hanford Operations Low-Level Waste Program and was responsible for alternative studies for upgrading 70 stack monitoring systems, disposal of contaminated laundry effluents, and management of contaminated waste disposal ponds. He also performed a study evaluating causes and frequency of HEPA filter failure and replacement at DOE sites.
  • Commercial Reactors: Mr. Carbaugh worked in commercial nuclear reactor maintenance and construction as a Field Engineer/QC Inspector for a reactor vendor and service company. He wrote procedures, provided liaison between field work and factory design, and supervised craft labor. Hands-on field experience included control rod drive and feedwater sparger replacement, moisture separator reheater modifications, and weld coupon stress corrosion loop testing. He also trained craft labor and supervision in control rod drive rebuilding and replacement.
  • Quality Assurance: As a QC Inspector for a reactor construction project, Mr. Carbaugh performed receipt inspections, reviewed material certifications, audited QA manual implementation, and controlled documents. He was also QC Supervisor for a major field modification of moisture separator reheaters.
  • Professional Society Activities: Mr. Carbaugh is actively involved in the Columbia Chapter, Health Physics Society where he has served as President and Treasurer (2 terms). He was recognized as the chapter's 1990 Health Physicist of the Year. He regularly teaches elements of the chapter's annual American Board of Health Physics Certification Preparation class.

Professional Affiliations

Health Physics Society
American Academy of Health Physics
American Nuclear Society

Professional Employment History

1980 to present Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Operated for USDOE by Battelle Memorial Institute) Richland, WA.

1977 to 1980 Rockwell Hanford Operations. Richland, WA.

1977 Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company. Richland, WA.

1974 to 1977 General Electric Company. Installation and Service Engineering Division. Schenectady, NY and San Jose, CA

1973 to 1974 Oregon State University. Department of Nuclear Engineering. Corvallis, OR.


Book Chapter

"Practical Applications of Internal Dose Calculations." Chapter 24 of Internal Radiation Dosimetry, Otto G. Raabe, ed. 1994. Medical Physics Publishing, Madison, Wisconsin.

National Consensus Standards or Reports

Population Monitoring and Decontamination Following a Nuclear or Radiological Incident, NCRP Report No. 166. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD. 2011. Member of authoring Scientific Committee 4-2.

Management of Persons Contaminated with Radionuclides: Handbook, NCRP Report No. 161. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Bethesda, MD. 2008. Consultant to the authoring Scientific Committee 4-1.

Internal Dosimetry Programs for Tritium Exposure - Minimum Requirements, HPS N13.14-1994. (Working group member.) Health Physics Society, MacLean Virginia.

Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications

Carbaugh EH, TP Lynch, CL Antonio, and F Medina-Del Valle. "Twenty-four Years of Follow-Up for a Hanford Plutonium Wound Case." PNNL-SA-66577. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. Health Physics 99(4):483-494; October, 2010.

Carbaugh EH, TP Lynch, C Cannon, and LL Lewis. "Case Study: Three Acute 241Am Inhalations with DTPA Therapy." PNNL-SA-66576. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. Health Physics 99(4):539-546; October 2010.

James AC, LB Sasser , SE Glover, and EH Carbaugh. 2008. "USTUR Whole Body Case 0269: Demonstrating Effectiveness of I.V. Ca-DTPA for Pu ." Radiation Protection Dosimetry 127(SP-ISS):449-455. 2008.

"Field and Bioassay Indicators for Internal Dose Intervention Therapy." Health Physics 92 (Supplement):S123-S126, 2007.

"Minimum Detectable Dose as a Measure of Bioassay Program Capability." Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol 105, No 1-4 pp 391-394 (2003).

"Two Cases of Highly Insoluble Plutonium Inhalation with Implications for Bioassay," with TR La Bone. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol 105, No 1-4 pp 133-138 (2003).

"Internal Dosimetry Monitoring Equipment - Present and Future," with Jack Selby, MM Lardy, TP Lynch, and DJ Strom. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol 53, No 1/4; pp49-58 (1994).

"Long-Term Follow-Up of HAN-1, An Acute Plutonium Oxide Inhalation Case," (with DE Bihl and MJ Sula). In Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Respiratory Tract Dosimetry, pp 99-104. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol 38 No. 1/3;(1991). Nuclear Technology Publishing.

"Medical and Health Physics Management of a Plutonium Wound," (with WA Decker and MJ Swint). In Biological Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Actinides, pp 345-349. Published in Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 24 No. 1/4;(1989). Nuclear Technology Publishing.

"The Impact of Upgraded In Vivo Lung Measurement Capability on an Internal Dosimetry Program," (with MJ Sula, TL Aldridge, and HB Spitz). In Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Lung Dosimetry, pp 885-892. Published in Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Vol. 32, Supplement 1 (1988). Pergamon Press.

Other Publications

Carbaugh, Eugene H. & David J. Watson. Sept, 2010. "Carbon-14 Bioassay for Decommissioning of Hanford Reactors." PNNL-SA-75300. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. (Also published in proceedings of 56th Annual Radiobioassay and Radiochemical Measurements Conference, October 2010.)

Carbaugh, Eugene H. July, 2010. "Recommendations for UO3 Plant Bioassay." PNNL-19550. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.

Carbaugh, Eugene H. 2009. "New Stochastic Annual Limits on Intake for Selected Radionuclides." PNNL-18690. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.

Carbaugh, E.J., Bihl, D.E., MacLellan, J.A. 2009. "Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program Manual, PNL-MA-552," PNNL-15613 Rev. 1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.

Carbaugh, E.J., Bihl, D.E., MacLellan, J.A., Antonio, C.L., and Hill, R.L. 2009. "Methods and Models of the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, PNNL-MA-860," PNNL-15614 Rev. 1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.

Carbaugh, Eugene H. 2008. "Jack Healy Remembers: Anecdotal Evidence for the Origin of the Simulated 24-Hour Urine Sampling Protocol Used for Worker Bioassay Monitoring." Health Physics News, XXXVI:10, October 2008. Health Physics Society. McLean, VA.

Carbaugh, E.H. and Hill, R.L. 2007. Where Did This Come From? Or, Lessons Learned from High Routine Bioassay Investigations. PNNL-SA-55009. Presentation at the Environmental Facility Contractors' Group, May 2, 2007, Atlanta, Georgia. (Abstract cleared as PNNL-SA-54969.)

Carbaugh, E.H., Carlson, E.W., and Hill, R.L. 2004. Bioassay vs. Air Sampling: Practical Guidance and Experience at Hanford. PNNL-SA-40610. Published in "Proceedings of the 37th Mid-Year Topical Meeting, Health Physics Society, February 8-11, 2004, Augusta, Georgia." Health Physics Society, McLean, VA.

Carbaugh, Eugene H. 2004. The Plutonium Reality Show: "Super Class Y vs. Class W and Class Y" - A Contest of Bioassay and Internal Dosimetry. PNNL-SA-40588. Professional development seminar sponsored by the Hanford Radiological Control Forum. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Available URL:

Carbaugh, E.H., and Bihl, D.E. 2000. Methods and Models of the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program. PNNL-MA-860. Internal manual. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Available URL:

Strom, D.J.; Bihl, D.E.; Carbaugh, E.H.; MacLellan, J.A.; Antonio, C.L. Hanford Approach to Dealing with Suspected Intakes of Plutonium. PNNL-SA-34012. Presented at LANL Plutonium Bioassay and Internal Dosimetry Workshop, DOE Los Alamos Area Office, Dec. 4, 2000. Richland, Washington: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; 2000.

"Urine Data Normalization for Bioassay Assessment." PNNL-SA-30531. October 1998. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

"How to Design and Run a Bioassay Program." A professional enrichment program for the Health Physics Society Annual Meeting. PNNL-SA-30262. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. July 1998.

"New Implications for Cesium-137 Whole Body Counting," with J.A. MacLellan and D.E. Bihl. PNNL-SA-29694. June 1998. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

"Hanford Bioassay and Internal Dosimetry – 1998 Status." PNNL-SA-29995. May 1998. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

"Hanford Internal Dosimetry Project Manual," with D.E. Bihl, J.A. MacLellan, and M.P. Long. PNL-7001 Rev 3, 1997 (Also earlier versions). Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

"Long-Term Reevaluations of Internal Dose – A Good Idea?" PNL-SA-25643A. January 1985. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

"Practical Issues in Discriminating Between Environmental and Occupational Sources of Uranium in a Uranium Urinalysis Bioassay Program," with M.P. Long and N.L. Fairrow. PNL-SA 24340. Pacific Northwest Laboratory. September 1994.

"Experience in Using Fecal Bioassay Following Accidental Inhalation of Plutonium," with R.L. Hill. PNL-SA-23546. Pacific Northwest Laboratory. June 1994.

"Evaluation of Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Registry Case 664(U)," with La Bone, T.R., W.C. Griffith, R.A. Guilmette, and K.W. Skrable. 1992. ESH-HPT0920178. Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, S.C.

"Bioassay Criteria for Environmental Restoration Workers," (with DE Bihl). In Environmental Health Physics: Proceedings of the 26th Midyear Topical Meeting of the Health Physics Society, pp 457-466. Published by Columbia Chapter, Health Physics Society, Richland, Washington. January 1993.

"Use of Probability Analysis to Establish Routine Bioassay Screening Levels," (with MJ Sula and KM McFadden). PNL-SA-17716. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, September 1990.

"Technical Basis for Internal Dosimetry at Hanford," (with MJ Sula and DE Bihl). PNL-6866. Pacific Northwest Laboratory. April 1989. (and Rev 1, July 1991).

"Methods to Improve Routine Bioassay Monitoring for Freshly Separated, Poorly Transported Plutonium," (contributing author under DE Bihl, et. al.). PNL-6695. Pacific Northwest Laboratory. September 1988.

"Monitoring Internal Exposure at Hanford," A videotape developed under the direction of EH Carbaugh for Hanford worker training. Approved for public showing by the U.S. Department of Energy, October 1987.

"Fundamentals of Health Physics for the Radiation Protection Officer," (contributing author under B.L. Murphy, et. al.), DARCOM-P 385-1, HQ U.S. Army Material Development and Readiness Command, September 1983. (authored Chapter 7 - Decontamination.)

"Generic Particulate Monitoring System for Retrofit to Hanford Exhaust Stacks", (with JW Cammann), In Proceedings of the Fourth DOE Environmental Protection Information Meeting, December 7-9, 1982. Denver, Colorado. CONF-821215, National Technical Information Service, August 1983.

"Nuclear Air Cleaning: The Need for a Change in Emphasis", In Proceedings of the Fourth DOE Environmental Protection Information Meeting, December 7-9, 1982. Denver, Colorado. CONF-821215, National Technical Information Service, August 1983.

"A Survey of HEPA Filter Experience", In Proceedings of the 17th DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference, Denver, Colorado, August 1982.

"Analysis and Assessment of 200 Area Effluent Sampler-Monitor Systems," RHO-CD-667. (with JW Cammann, WG Jasen, HE McGuire, and JC Pierce.) Rockwell Hanford Operations. March, 1979.