The U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) was established in 1943 as the Surgical Research Unit at Halloran General Hospital, Staten Island, New York. The unit initially studied antibiotics for treating war wounds and expanded to study innovative surgical techniques and developments. In 1947 the Surgical Research Unit moved to Brooke General Hospital, Fort Sam Houston, Texas. In 1949 their mission expanded to encompass the study of thermal injury. In the 1950s the Army’s “Burn Unit” became a class II activity of the Surgeon General. It was later assigned to HQ, U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, which became premier dialysis research center. In 1994 USAISR became a subordinate command of U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC). Expanded research focus to include battlefield injury and combat casualty care. In 2003 the USAISR Burn Center implemented the mission of caring for war casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. In 2010 the Battlefield Health and Trauma (BHT) Research Institute collocated with the USAISR.